Edited Numeric Format
Description and Discussion
  Table of Contents  v-16.01.01 - dataen01.htm 
  Introduction
  Convert, Numeric to Text String
  Binary Field to Text String
  Packed-Decimal Field to Text String
  Zoned-Decimal Field to Text String
  Prepare a Numeric Field for Export
  Possibilities and Considerations
  Summary
  Software Agreement and Disclaimer
  Downloads & Links
  Current Server or Internet Access
  Internet Access Required
  Glossary of Terms
  Comments or Feedback
  Company Overview
The SimoTime Home Page 

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Introduction

This document will focus on the discussion of an edited numeric format (or using an edit mask) that is typically used by COBOL programmers that maintain or support Mainframe applications. The edited numeric format is typically used to prepare or convert numeric data that is stored in a variety of formats into a format that is easily read by human beings or easily exported to a non-Mainframe or non-COBOL environment such as an Excel spreadsheet running on a Windows platform.

Note: The items in this document are appropriate for applications that are written in COBOL, Mainframe Assembler (HLASM) or PL/I. The IBM Mainframe architecture drove many of the numeric formats that existed in the early ANSI specifications for COBOL and have been carried forward to the current COBOL ANSI specifications.


We have made a significant effort to ensure the documents and software technologies are correct and accurate. We reserve the right to make changes without notice at any time. The function delivered in this version is based upon the enhancement requests from a specific group of users. The intent is to provide changes as the need arises and in a timeframe that is dependent upon the availability of resources.

Copyright © 1987-2017
SimoTime Technologies and Services
All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Convert, Numeric to Text String

The following table shows the conversion of Zoned-Decimal (USAGE IS DISPLAY), Binary (USAGE IS COMP) and Packed-Decimal (USAGE IS COMP-3) fields with various values to a human readable field for printing or displaying. The edited field (or result field) will have the leading zeroes suppressed and contain an explicit decimal point. The trailing sign is a separate character. Since the edit mask contains a "-" (or minus sign) the sign will only print for negative numbers as a "-" or minus sign. The plus sign is a space character. If the value of the input field is greater than 999.99 then commas will be inserted and printed or displayed.

Input Output
Input Field Usage Value Hex ASCII Hex EBCDIC
PIC S9(5)V(2) DISPLAY 0 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 C0
  COMP   00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  COMP-3   00 00 00 0C 00 00 00 0C
  DISPLAY +1.23 30 30 30 30 31 32 33 F0 F0 F0 F0 F1 F2 C3
  COMP   00 00 00 7B 00 00 00 7B
  COMP-3   00 00 12 3C 00 00 12 3C
  DISPLAY +9876.54 30 39 38 37 36 35 34 F0 F9 F8 F7 F6 F5 C4
  COMP   00 0F 12 06 00 0F 12 06
  COMP-3   09 87 65 4C 09 87 65 4C
  DISPLAY -10.00 30 30 30 31 30 30 70 F0 F0 F0 F1 F0 F0 D0
  COMP   FF FF FC 18 FF FF FC 18
  COMP-3   00 01 00 0D 00 01 00 0D
Edit Mask Result 
PIC ZZ,ZZZ.99- .00 
  .00 
  .00 
  1.23 
  1.23 
  1.23 
  9,876.54 
  9,876.54 
  9,876.54 
  10.00-
  10.00-
  10.00-

The following sections will show snippets of COBOL code that may be used to edit (prepare or convert) the various numeric formats for printing or displaying. The technique used for the Binary, Packed-Decimal and Zoned-Decimal is the same.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Binary Field to Text String

The following shows sample COBOL source code for preparing a binary field to be printed or displayed.

       WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
       ...
       01  BINARY-FIELD            PIC S9(5)V(2)   USAGE IS COMP.
      *
       01  EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES   PIC ZZ,ZZZ.99-.
       ...
       PROCEDURE DIVISION.
      *    If the PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD had more decimal positions
      *    than the EDIT-WITH-BLANK-FILL field then the following would
      *    truncate the decimal positions without rounding.
           move BINARY-FIELD to EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES 
      *    If the PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD had more decimal positions
      *    than the EDIT-WITH-BLANK-FILL field then the following would
      *    do the proper rounding.
           add BINARY-FIELD to ZERO
                giving EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES ROUNDED

 

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Packed-Decimal Field to Text String

The following shows sample COBOL source code for preparing a packed-decimal field to be printed or displayed.

       WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
       ...
       01  PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD    PIC S9(5)V(2)   USAGE IS COMP-3.
      *
       01  EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES   PIC ZZ,ZZZ.99-.
       ...
       PROCEDURE DIVISION.
      *    If the PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD had more decimal positions
      *    than the EDIT-WITH-BLANK-FILL field then the following would
      *    truncate the decimal positions without rounding.
           move PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD to EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES 
      *    If the PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD had more decimal positions
      *    than the EDIT-WITH-BLANK-FILL field then the following would
      *    do the proper rounding.
           add PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD to ZERO
                giving EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES ROUNDED

 

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Zoned-Decimal Field to Text String

The following shows sample COBOL source code for preparing a zoned-decimal field to be printed or displayed.

       WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
       ...
       01  ZONED-DECIMAL-FIELD    PIC S9(5)V(2)   USAGE IS COMP-3.
      *
       01  EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES   PIC ZZ,ZZZ.99-.
       ...
       PROCEDURE DIVISION.
      *    If the PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD had more decimal positions
      *    than the EDIT-WITH-BLANK-FILL field then the following would
      *    truncate the decimal positions without rounding.
           move ZONED-DECIMAL-FIELD to EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES 
      *    If the PACKED-DECIMAL-FIELD had more decimal positions
      *    than the EDIT-WITH-BLANK-FILL field then the following would
      *    do the proper rounding.
           add ZONED-DECIMAL-FIELD to ZERO
                giving EDIT-DROP-LEAD-ZEROES ROUNDED

 

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Prepare a Numeric Field for Export

The following table show the conversion of Zoned-Decimal (USAGE IS DISPLAY), Binary (USAGE IS COMP) and Packed-Decimal (USAGE IS COMP-3) fields with various values to a text field for exporting.

Input Output
Input Field COBOL Usage Value Hex Value
PIC S9(5)V(2) DISPLAY 0 x'F0F0F0F0F0F0C0'
  COMP   x'00000000'
  COMP-3   x'00000C'
  DISPLAY 123 x'F0F0F0F0F1F2C3'
  COMP   x'0000007B'
  COMP-3   x'0000123C'
  DISPLAY 987654 x'F0F0F9F8F7F6C5'
  COMP   x'000F1206'
  COMP-3   x'0987654C'
Edit Mask Result
PIC +99999.99 +00000.00
  +00000.00
  +00000.00
  +00001.23
  +00001.23
  +00001.23
  +09876.54
  +09876.54
  +09876.54

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Possibilities and Considerations

This section describes possible situations that may need special consideration and may take additional time to properly address.

Item Description
1 When moving values from numeric fields to edited fields be sure the number of digits are specified for both fields are the same. If the edited field is smaller then truncation occurs.
2 If fewer decimal positions will be printed or displayed and rounding is required the following technique will do a move with rounding.
    add NUMERIC-FIELD to ZERO giving EDITED-FIELD ROUNDED
  Possibilities and Considerations

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Summary

The purpose of this document is to provide information about an edited numeric format that is typically used to prepare or convert numeric data that is stored in a variety of formats into a format that is easily read by human beings or may be exported to a non-mainframe environment such as an excel spreadsheet running in a Windows environment. Also, this document may be used to assist as a tutorial for new programmers or as a quick reference for experienced programmers.

In the world of programming there are many ways to solve a problem. This document and the links to other documents are intended to provide a greater awareness of the Data Management and Application Processing alternatives.

The documentation and software were developed and tested on systems that are configured for a SIMOTIME environment based on the hardware, operating systems, user requirements and security requirements. Therefore, adjustments may be needed to execute the jobs and programs when transferred to a system of a different architecture or configuration.

SIMOTIME Services has experience in moving or sharing data or application processing across a variety of systems. For additional information about SIMOTIME Services or Technologies please send an e-mail to: helpdesk@simotime.com or call 415 883-6565. We appreciate hearing from you.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Software Agreement and Disclaimer

Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software, documentation or training material for any purpose requires a fee to be paid to SimoTime Technologies. Once the fee is received by SimoTime the latest version of the software, documentation or training material will be delivered and a license will be granted for use within an enterprise, provided the SimoTime copyright notice appear on all copies of the software. The SimoTime name or Logo may not be used in any advertising or publicity pertaining to the use of the software without the written permission of SimoTime Technologies.

SimoTime Technologies makes no warranty or representations about the suitability of the software, documentation or learning material for any purpose. It is provided "AS IS" without any expressed or implied warranty, including the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. SimoTime Technologies shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages resulting from the loss of use, data or projects, whether in an action of contract or tort, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of this software, documentation or training material.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Downloads & Links

This section includes links to documents with additional information that are beyond the scope and purpose of this document. The first sub-section requires an internet connection, the second sub-section references locally available documents.

Note: A SimoTime License is required for the items to be made available on a local server.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Current Server or Internet Access

The following links may be to the current server or to the Internet.

Note: The latest versions of the SimoTime Documents and Program Suites are available on the Internet and may be accessed using the Link to Internet icon. If a user has a SimoTime Enterprise License the Documents and Program Suites may be available on a local server and accessed using the Link to Server icon.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore The Binary or COMP format for numeric data strings. This numeric structure is supported by COBOL and may be explicitly defined with the "USAGE IS COMP" or "USAGE IS BINARY" clause.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore The Edited for Display format for numeric data strings. This numeric structure is supported by COBOL and may be used with an edit-mask to prepare the presentation for readability by human beings.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore The Packed-Decimal or COMP-3 format for numeric data strings. This numeric structure is supported by COBOL and may be explicitly defined with the "USAGE IS COMP-3" clause.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore The Zoned-Decimal format for numeric data strings. This numeric structure is the default numeric for COBOL and may be explicitly defined with the "USAGE IS DISPLAY" clause.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore commonly used formats and processing techniques for managing various numeric formats available on the mainframe.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore the Numbers Connection for additional information about the structure and processing of numeric data items (or numeric fields).

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore How to Generate a Data File Convert Program using simple specification statements in a Process Control File (PCF). This link to the User Guide includes the information necessary to create a Process Control File and generate the COBOL programs that will do the actual data file conversion. The User Guide contains a list of the PCF statements that are used for the data file convert process.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore a typical data file conversion process that may be required when working in a multi-system environment. This suite of documents describes a model for managing non-relational data structures (Sequential Files and VSAM Data Sets) that contain ASCII or EBCDIC text strings and various numeric formats such as BINARY, PACKED-Decimal and ZONED-Decimal. This model has the capability of creating a test file for an ASCII or EBCDIC encoded environment. This suite of documents will address many of the challenges of doing a record content conversion of a file that will be transferred between an EBCDIC-encoded Mainframe System and an ASCII-encoded Linux, UNIX or Windows System.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore The ASCII and EBCDIC Translation Tables. These tables are provided for individuals that need to better understand the bit structures and differences of the encoding formats.

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore The File Status Return Codes to interpret the results of accessing VSAM data sets and/or QSAM files.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Internet Access Required

The following links will require an internet connect.

A good place to start is The SimoTime Home Page for access to white papers, program examples and product information. This link requires an Internet Connection

Explore The Micro Focus Web Site for more information about products and services available from Micro Focus. This link requires an Internet Connection.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Glossary of Terms

Link to Internet   Link to Server   Explore the Glossary of Terms for a list of terms and definitions used in this suite of documents and white papers.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Comments or Feedback

This document was created and is copyrighted and maintained by SimoTime Technologies.

If you have any questions, suggestions, comments or feedback please call or send an e-mail to: helpdesk@simotime.com

We appreciate hearing from you.

Table of Contents Previous Section Next Section Company Overview

SimoTime Technologies was founded in 1987 and is a privately owned company. We specialize in the creation and deployment of business applications using new or existing technologies and services. We have a team of individuals that understand the broad range of technologies being used in today's environments. Our customers include small businesses using Internet technologies to corporations using very large mainframe systems.

Quite often, to reach larger markets or provide a higher level of service to existing customers it requires the newer Internet technologies to work in a complementary manner with existing corporate mainframe systems. We specialize in preparing applications and the associated data that are currently residing on a single platform to be distributed across a variety of platforms.

Preparing the application programs will require the transfer of source members that will be compiled and deployed on the target platform. The data will need to be transferred between the systems and may need to be converted and validated at various stages within the process. SimoTime has the technology, services and experience to assist in the application and data management tasks involved with doing business in a multi-system environment.

Whether you want to use the Internet to expand into new market segments or as a delivery vehicle for existing business functions or need assistance with converting non-relational data structures simply give us a call at 415 883-6565 or check the web site at http://www.simotime.com


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Edited Numeric Format, Description and Discussion
Copyright © 1987-2017
SimoTime Technologies and Services
All Rights Reserved
When technology complements business
http://www.simotime.com